Last Updated October 16, 2005

TURN SEQUENCE

Cards are drawn one by one. Each one represents a platoon of either side. When one side's card is drawn they may carry out the actions to the right :-

The pack of cards has one card per platoon (inc local FOO's) per player plus some extras. This can be varied at the scenario level but the basic is
+1 card for Russians
+1-2 cards for Brits, US, Germans
+0-1 cards for attacking side

Once every platoon on one side has been activated once in a turn, (excepting those on overwatch), any additional cards may be used to reactivate platoons giving them a second turn. NB that no platoon may be activated more than twice. MOST platoons will only be activated once per turn. Local FOO's may be activated twice . Divisional FOO's operate outisde of the activation system.

NB Snipers can be activated at any time without a card.
NB Soviets can deploy a 4-5 tank company as a single unit instead of 2 tank platoons


ALLOWABLE ACTIONS

Morale Check at beginning of every action

Move & Fire
Move & Close Assault
Stand & Fire
Overwatch (fire later)
Timed Assault (move/fire later)


MOVEMENT
Infantry & HMG
6"(+2)
PC's & CC's
8"(+2)
Cavalry
12"(+4)
Light gun pushed
4"
Medium Gun pushed
2"
Slow Tank
8"/12"
Normal Tank or H/Truck
12"/18"
Fast Tank
16"/26"
A/Car
10"/20"
Truck
6"/20"

1st speed is across non road open terrain. 2nd speed is for roads only. See terrain chart for effects on movement. (+2/4) is extra movement bonus if charging into melee this turn.

HMG, Mortar, may not move and fire in same activation. ATG may move 1"

MORALE TABLE

At the beginning of each platoons activation 1D6 must be thrown. The modifiers to right are added to this roll and the table below consulted to determine

Resultant Morale
Implication
Dice
Platoon OK All squads reduce their suppression levels by 1
5+
Platoon Unsteady All squads retain their current suppression and disruption levels
3-4
Platoon Shaken All squads are at least suppressed and can not advance, can still fire. (Any squad that starts Disrupted remains so)
1-2
Platoon Routed All squads are disrupted and will fall backwards for one full move or until reach cover. If start in cover must abandon it and pull back to next level
<1

MORALE CHECK
0% of platoon disrupted
+1
0% of platoon DEAD
0
<= 33%
-1
<=50%
-2
>50%
-3
No friendly platoon within 10"
-1
Tanks within 10" of enemy infantry without friendly infantry within 5"
-1
Infantry within 10" of enemy tanks without Tanks, ATG or Bazooka troops within 5" (ATR doesn't count)
-2
Whole platoon disrupted
-2
Platoon or Company commander
0, +1, +2
Veteran Troops
+1
Green Troops
-1
Russians / Japs / SS
+1

SPOTTING TABLE
Cover / TARGET Large Vehicle Medium Veh.
Large Gun
Small Veh.
Medium Gun
Inf Squad / Small Gun
dummy card
Target in Open
40"
30"
20"
20"
Target under Cover
20"
10"
5"
5"
Spotting Modifiers
Spotter Suppressed
-1

SPOTTING RANGES

80" / 60" / 40" / 30" / 20" / 10" / 5" /2"
Each modifier moves the max range target can be spotted at either left (+) or right (-)

Spotting through smoke
-2
Spotter FO / Recce or Sniper
+1
Target Moving
+2
Target Firing
+2
Spotter Higher
+1
GUN PENETRATION TABLE (1D10)
Gun
Hvy Tank
Med Tank
LT Tank
ATR + 20mm
N/A
10
7
GERMAN - 37mm + Short 50mm + Short 75mm
RUSSIAN - 45mm
10
8
5
GERMAN - Long 50mm + Middle 75mm + Early PzFaust
RUSSIAN - 76.2mm
8
6
3
GERMAN - Long 75mm + Short 88mm + Late PzFaust + PzSchrek
RUSSIAN - 85mm
7
4
1
Long 88mm
5
2
Auto
Range >18" & <=36"
-2
Range >36"
-4
Firing at softskin vehicle
+3
Per extra barrel on multi barrel
+1
If you hit the target on the side or rear you need to move 1 column to the right (Lt tank stay Lt tank)

If you equal the score the vehicle is destroyed. Roll for any passengers with 1D6.
3,4= suppressed / 5= Disrupted / 6= Dead
If you score 1 less than required the vehicle is disrupted. Roll for passengers as above but deduct -1 from the roll.
If you score 2 less than required the vehicle is suppressed Don't roll for passengers.

(Note - T34/76 is medium +1 to front and medium armour to side)


GUN TO HIT TABLE (1D10)
Roll "6" or more on 1D10 to attain a hit. NB all Bazooka and ATR type weapons only have a range of 10". Then apply accuracy rating.
Bazooka, Panzerfaust, Panzerschrek, ATR etc
-2
Russian early 76.2mm & smaller
German short 75mm, short 50mm and smaller
-1
Russian 85mm +
German long 50mm, long 75mm and larger
0
Then apply following modifiers :-
Range >18" & <=36"
-2
Range >36"
-3
Firers are Veterans
+1
Firers are Poor
-1
Firer is Suppressed
-1
Target is under cover
-1
Per extra barrel on multi barrel
+1
Target moved >3"*
-1
Firing through smoke*
-2
Firer (ATR) moved >3"*
-1
Firer (Tank) moved this turn*
-2
Firer (SPG) moved this turn*
-3
"Proximity Fire"*
-2

Disrupted firers can't fire. ATG can't move more than 1" and fire. Items marked * only count the highest, not cumulative

SMALL ARMS SHOOTING
Borrowing an idea from Crossfire, each squad, or machine gun has a number of D6 to fire.
Unit
nD6
Rifle/ATRSquad
3D6
SMG Squad
4D6 <=4"
3D6 <=10"
2D6 >18"
HMG & some tanks
4D6
Most AFV MG's
3D6
Range
Die score to hit
<=18"
5,6 on D6
>18" - 40"
6 on D6 (Rifle/ATR)
5,6 on D6 (HMG& Tank MG)
(& HE fired direct)
-1D6 if target is under cover (NOT direct HE) OR Proximity firing
Add up the hits scored by each Squad or machine gun (NOT each platoon)
1 hit
Target Suppressed
2 hits
Target Disrupted
3+ hits
Target Killed
Russians and Japanese when charging into close combat ignore Suppressed results but count Disrupted hits as kills. At all other times they behave as other nationalities.
Cavalry dismount as either rifle or smg. can fire whilst mounted but ALWAYS count as in the open. -1D6 if moving > half speed
Softskin vehicles hit by small arms are destroyed if Disrupted.

AREA FIRE
Weapon
nD6
50mm mortar / Artillery 50mm - 84mm (Tanks below 75mm)
3D6

80mm Mortar / Artillery 85mm - 122mm
(Tanks 75mm & Above + 20mm rapid cannons)

4D6
Artillery >122mm & 120mm Mortar
5D6
If target is in indirect cover -1D6

Each model gun fired pick a target and then roll a scatter dice & 1D6. Place a 5" diameter area fire template in resulting location, all infantry 100% and vehicles at least 50% under the template are hit. Please note tanks firing direct HE use D6 equiv from above and fire on small arms table.

Casualties are as per small arms fire. a 5,6 on each D6 is a hit. 1 hit is suppressed 2 hits is Disrupted and 3 hits is killed. All batteries fire as a separate template. If firing at armoured vehicles, the process is identical except only 6's count as hits.

FOO's may not move and plot artillery fire in the same activation

DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY
Local artillery falls when Local FOO calls it down. Divisional artillery can only be called down by Divisional FOO and is called at the beginning of the turn, and falls at the end of the turn. Normally only 81mm mortars and guns and smaller are "Local", this varies by army.

CLOSE ASSAULT (1D10)
The defending platoon may fire at an attacker so long as it has not already engaged in close combat this turn, (even if it has already fired ONCE). Get a point blank shot and are then engaged by any surviving attackers who were not supressed or worse.
For each squad etc in a close assault roll 1D10 and add modifiers. If one side has > 1:1 odds roll one dice for each unit, count the highest score rolled.
If an attacker lines up against a defender. One additional defender can come to the defenders aide so long as they are not in combat, within 2" and part of the same platoon (inc attachments)
If attacker wins a combat the defender loses one squad etc and any survivors retreat 2". The attacker can advance into defenders vacant position if wish.
If the defender wins a combat the attacker loses a squad etc and any survivors retreat 2". Loser always decides which unit has been lost if more than one unit engaged.
If close combat scores are drawn, fight continues when either one side gets next activation, OR another platoon joins in.

CLOSE COMBAT MODIFIERS
ATR or Molotovs V Vehicle
+1
Panzerfaust/Schrek/Bazooka V Vehicle
+2
Open topped AFV
+0
A/C or closed in SPG
+1
Turreted Tank
+2
Armoured vehicle initiating close combat +1
SMG squad V Inf/Gun/Cav
+1
Cav V Inf or Gun +2
Engineers + Flamethrower
+2
Defender "Indirect" cover
+1
Defender Suppressed
-1
Defender Disrupted
-2
HMG/Gun/Mortar/Truck
-2
LMG squad -1
Veterans +1
Poor troops -1
NB If attacker is disrupted or suppressed before close combat is resolved then they never make it into close combat

 

HALF TRACKS
These can normally carry 2 or 3 squads per vehicle (each model represents 2-3 halftracks).
1 Squad may shoot out of either of the sides of the halftrack (not front or rear). In addition the HMG may fire in whatever firing arc the vehicle represents.
The main HMG will normally count as 4D6. Others would only be 3D6.
Only 2 weapons may fire per activation. A squad counts as a weapon and each HMG counts as a weapon e.g. could fire HMG + 1 squad.
Squads may only fire if the vehicle moved <= half speed. (HMG's may fire at any speed)
If the vehicle moves >2 inches all fire from squads not HMG's lose 1D6.
Would lose the same D6 if firing supressed. Not cumulative only lose 1D6.
If the target is under cover lose a further D6 (You never go below 2D6)
Squads can be shot on a halftrack, they count as under cover.


TERRAIN CHART
Terrain
Movement
Spotting Cover
(blocks LOS?)
Direct Fire Cover
Indirect Fire cover or close combat
Wall
No delay to cross inf and tracked.
NO guns, wheel or halftracked
Yes (LOS OK)
Yes
No
Hedge
No delay to cross. NO guns, wheeled
Yes (LOS OK)
No
No
Rough Scrub
1/2 off road speed. FULL for infantry
Yes (+blocks LOS)
Yes
No
River
1/2 off road speed.
No
No
No
Building
1/2 off road speed. FULL for infantry
Yes (+blocks LOS)
Yes
Yes
Bunker
1/2 turn to enter or exit
Yes (LOS OK)
Yes*2
Yes*2
Road
Road speed
No
No
No
Woods
1/2 off road speed. FULL for infantry
Yes (+blocks LOS)
Yes
No
Hill Crest
Full off road speed
No & see further
Yes
No
Trench
1/2 turn to enter or exit
Yes (LOS OK)
Yes
Yes
LOS simplified dead zone - if the firer is highest, target lowest and something in between higher than target but lower than firer then the dead zone is 1/2 distance from firer to obstacle.

 

ANTI AIRCRAFT FIRE

A unit armed with dedicated anti aircraft weapons can be placed on Anti Air overwatch, they can only then fire at aircraft that turn. Fire once using 1D6 when an aircraft arrives.

6 Aircraft destroyed BEFORE any weapons fired
5 Aircraft driven off damaged after weapons fired
1-4 No effect

AIRCRAFT
Aircraft can make two passes.

1st Pass Bombs, equivalent of 150mm artillery and deduct 1" from the deviation distance dice roll
2nd Pass HMG 1 squad or vehicle (plus 2nd target if within 2" of first), counts as close range, vehicle counts as hit on rear in the open. Inf use indirect fire column on the cover table.

LINE OF SIGHT

Walls, Hedges etc give some cover but do not block line of sight past them, see terrain table for details

All troop types can shoot through all friendly troops without risk so long as they are not shooting through more than one friendly vehicle or squad. Shooting through more is not permitted, unless the firer is on higher ground.

A firer on a hill shooting at a target on low ground, with an intervening object between the two, which is higher than the target but lower than the firer, has a dead spot beyond the intervening obstacle equal to half the distance between the firer and the intervening obstacle. For game purposes normally assume trees and buildings etc are level "1", ordinary ground is level "0" and hills are level "2". More complex Line of sight can be introduced if you can be bothered to work it out!

 

PRE GAME BOMBARDMENT

All nationalities, but particularly the Russians, have higher echelon artillery assets that can be allocated to a pre game bombardment in a set piece attack game. This is simulated by allowing a single turns pre planned fire on turn 0. The artillery is always "Divisional" and will be either 4D6 or 5D6 calibre. The attacker plots location of pre game bombardment after hidden counters and minefields are deployed.

Russians should be given 3-6 templates worth of artillery,
British & US 2-4 templates.
Germans 2-3 templates.

NB Only the attacker can have a pre game bombardment. As morale is checked and hopefully recovered as each platoon is activated, the defender may still have troops suppressed and disrupted by artillery when the attacking platoons come into range.

PLATOON & COMPANY COMMANDERS

Platoon commanders add their + factor to 1 squad in a close combat, and to the entire platoon for a morale check. Company Commanders add their bonus to the squad they are a part of for close combat, and can add their plus to one platoon for a morale check, (Platoon or company commander rating, not both), all company level attachments are treated together as a platoon.

 

MINES
Mines are supplied in 2" X 2" strips. For every mine strip available you get 2 bogus strips.They can be placed anywhere on the defenders side of the board, They are not revealed as genuine or fake until a unit crosses them.
Specialist mine clearing tanks remove a 2" square in 1/2 a turn.
Ordinary vehicles crossing a minefield roll 1D6. On a 4,5,6 they are destroyed, on a 1,2,3 they clear the minefield and the minefield is removed. It takes 1/2 a move to pass the minefield. If the vehicle is destroyed it is left in the minefield and NO other vehicle may enter that square for the remainder of the game,
Engineers spend 1/2 a turn to clear a minefield square. Roll 1D6 on a 6 the engineers are destroyed otherwise minefield goes.
Other infantry crossing a minefield roll 1D6, on a 5,6 the infantry are destroyed, 3,4, they pass the minefield but it is still active, 1,2 they clear a path and remove that 2" square.

It takes 1/2 a turn to clear a minefield even a dummy. In all above cases enemy on overwatch may fire as units enter the minefield. If they score suppressed or better the mine clearer halts the rest of the turn, taking no damage from the minefield but not clearing it or identifying it as a Dummy. Mines are destroyed by a kill result for artillery. One template only affects ONE minefield square, there is no roll for deviation, any mine fields are laid on the board before pre game bombardment is planned. In a meeting engagement there are no mines. In a hasty attack there are only mines if the defender has engineers In a set piece attack on a prepared position the defender is allowed mines.

SNIPERS
Snipers are placed with hidden movement and can't move. Don't put a card on the table to represent their position, they are only marked on a copy of the table by the owning player. They are spotted by anything that moves within 3 inches of them. A spotted Sniper is removed from the game as either killed or fled.
More commonly the Sniper fires before it is spotted. A Sniper can fire double the normal distances through woods, built up areas etc, and can otherwise shoot to a maximum range of 24 inches. They always roll 3D6 regardless of range, cover etc. Hits are scored as per normal on a roll of 5 or 6.
Snipers can be activated and fire at any point in any turn, no card required for the activation,
Snipers never take morale checks.
For Squad targets casualties are scored normally, for single figure targets, 1 dice hit Disrupts the target and 2 or more hits kills the target.
Once the Sniper has fired once, his location is announced and he is removed from the game unhurt.


RUSSIAN WEATHER RULES

In the wet season no one gets the bonus for road movement. All German men and equipment can not exceed 1/2 off road speed (not halved again for crossing walls etc). Russians can move a maximum of 3/4 off road movement speeds.

In winter conditions the Russians are unaffected (Not true but the Germans were relatively more affected than the Russians). Germans with winter gear have a -1 modifier to all morale rolls. Those without have a -2 modifier to morale rolls.
At the beginning of a scenario roll a D6 for all German vehicles and guns, on a 5,6 they are frozen and unable to move or fire. From the 2nd turn onwards roll 1D6 each turn, on a roll of "6" the item has been thawed out and can now move and fire as normal.
Likewise for infantry at the beginning of a scenario roll a D6 for each squad, 1,2,3 OK, 4,5 Suppressed, 6 = Frostbitten and removed from play, do not count as casualties for game purposes, just remove from platoon total.
These loses are on top of any pre game bombardment losses. Suppressed troops will recover their morale as per any other suppressed troops.

BARBED WIRE

Represented in 2" X 1/2" strips

Artillery Destroyed on a kill, don't roll for deviation
Wheeled Vehicles Can't Pass
Half Track 1/2 turn to cross. 6 on 1D6 get stuck, otherwise wire destroyed
Tank Destroy wire no speed reduction
Engineers 1/2 turn to destroy
Infantry Roll 1D6 every 1/2 turn. 5,6 clears a section. Can not fire on any turn wire is being cut.
As per mines anyone on overwatch can prevent the wire cutting activities by scoring a suppression or better score against them

 

NOTES

TURN SEQUENCE - The first action every platoon, once activated MUST carry out is the morale check action. (EXCEPTION - no unit is ever forced to take a morale check if on the previous turn it did not fire any of it's elements direct fire weapons nor was fired upon by any enemy forces). One of the remainder actions can be carried out. Most are self explanatory. If Overwatch is selected this platoon may choose to FIRE at any point later in this turn, and may interrupt any enemy unit moving or firing. It may not move later in the turn. TIMED ASSAULT may do anything with platoon later in turn, but only AFTER someone you attempt to interrupt completely finishes that platoons movement / firing, which may put them out of sight. It is now permissable to fire overwatch sections at different points throughout the turn as targets appear.

NB at the end of the turn every platoon on overwatch or timed assault must have a go. (i.e. you can't use overwatch to get out of a morale check.)

FOG OF WAR ALTERNATIVE - In a recent scenario the platoons had become seperated and command structure had broken down. As such each playing card drawn represented a SPECIFIC platoon, not just any old russian or German platoon. This is the way I used to do it and actually we preferred this way and may go to it permanently? In addition I had each German player draw a playing car each turn, if it was a picture card they could have a second turn with one of their two platoons at any time of the turn. This is the equivalent of having a couple of extra cards in the pack for the Germans, and again the fateful draw on an important turn to see who got the picture cards was a lot of fun!

UNIT SCALES - The following scales were assumed for this game.
1 Platoon commander or FO on a base 5/8ths inch X 1 1/4" = a single man plus possibly an assistant.
3 infantry or 2 cavalry on a base roughly 1 1/4" square = a squad of 8-12 men
HMG & 2 crew on a base roughly 1 1/4" square = 2-3 HMG's and crew
Mortar & 2 crew on a base roughly 1 1/4" square = 2-3 Mortars and crew (Mortars and all indirect artillery can be on or off board it doesn't really matter)
1 officer + 2 other figures on a base roughly 1 1/4" square = a Company commander stand
3 squads (4 Russians) + a single platoon commander figure = a platoon
Inf company = a company commander stand that can fight as a squad, + 1-2 HMG + 1-2 Mortars at company level + 3 platoons
A/C, Tanks, ATG and on board artillery can be organized as independent 2 section platoons or attached to an infantry platoon. Inf platoon may have up to 2 H/Track, 2 Trucks, 1 Mortar, 1 ATG, 1 AFV attached to it (can't have trucks and halftracks in one platoon). (Russians can have a Tank company of 5 tanks inc one command vehicle)
Half tracks and trucks MUST be attached to an infantry (or ATG) platoon.
1 gun or tank model = 2-3 actual vehicles / guns
1 inch on the board = 25 yards. As such tank shooting ranges are described as <500 yards. 500-1,000 yards and extreme range.
M/cycle, AFV, A/C, Jeeps, Sdkfz 250 etc can carry 1 infantry squad per model vehicle
Large half tracks (Hanomag 251) and small lorries can carry 2 infantry squads per model vehicle
Large trucks can carry 3 infantry squads per model vehicle
In the above three cases platoon commanders and FO's don't count, everyone else counts as a squad

HIDDEN DEPLOYMENT - If this is used the defender normally puts down a 1 1/4" piece of card for each of their platoons, in addition for every 2 real cards they are given one bogus card to place. (This can be varied for scenarios). The nature of the cards are only uncovered once within spotting range. Put down full sized cards for FO's and company commanders. No cards are neccessary for platoon commanders they may be placed anywhere on the board within 2" of one of their squads when first revealed. Once a hidden counter is revealed as either genuine or fake it can never become hidden again.

MOVEMENT - Elements can move the distances in the chart. Terrain effects on movement are indicated in the terrain chart. Generally wheeled vehicles go best across roads. tracked vehicles go well across open ground and infantry go well across difficult terrain. Slow tanks would be like the British Matilda II. Normal tanks would be most German tanks, Soviet T26, T-70 etc. Fast tanks would be T34 and BT-7, British Cruisers etc. Infantry and cavalry can move a little faster than normal in a turn that they end in hand to hand combat, simulating the "Charge" into combat.

NOTE - HMG's Mortars and towed/pushed ATG's can't move and fire. (ATG's can move up to 1" and fire) ATR's. LMG's Tanks, A/C's and even SPG's can though turretless SPG's like the Stug's and SU76 have an enormous -3 penalty for moving and firing,

MORALE - Each and every time a platoon (inf or vehicles) is activated the platoon morale is rolled for. This is one roll that covers all squads and attached units, So if a Platoon had an attached ATG and half track they would be included in the result. NB They would also be included in the platoon total for working out percentage of casualties suffered. (EXCEPTION - no unit is ever forced to take a morale check if on the previous turn it did not fire any of it's elements direct fire weapons nor was fired upon by any enemy forces)

Normally either all squads within a platoon have their morale equally raised or lowered by the resulting roll. The only exception is where squads have already been suppressed or disrupted by enemy fire and the morale result is no result. Or if a squad is disrupted and the result is Platoon Shaken, the disrupted squad(s) remain disrupted, all others become suppressed

Trucks and other softskin vehicles are not included in the total count of units in a platoon, but they DO count as casualties if destroyed. Motto is DON'T endanger your softskin transport. e.g. 4 squad platoon carried on 2 lorries. The count for the platoon is 4. If a squad and a lorry were destroyed casualties for the platoon would count as 50%

SUPPRESSED troops can fire OK but they can't move, except to retreat voluntarily from all enemy troops).
DISRUPTED troops can't advance or fire. If they aren't in cover they must retreat to find cover.
If suppression levels are reduced by 1, Disrupted become Suppressed, and Suppressed become normal

SMOKE - Is fired by artillery. For mortars and guns upto 105mm each model gun (representing 2-3 real artillery pieces) will lay a smoke screen 4" wide by 1 1/2" deep. Greater than 105mm will be 6" wide and 2 " deep. It will remain on board for the remainder of the turn and then dissipate. Smoke deployed at the "End" of the turn as per divisional artillery rules stays in place the entire of the following turn. Positioning is as per ordinary artillery. So position your smoke early in the turn, and then maneuver under it's cover. If it is needed for the following turn, get a new barrage down very early or risk your troops being out in the open. Smoke seriously reduces spotting and shooting effectiveness but does not affect close combat, so use it to mask an assault.

SPOTTING - You are either within spotting range or not. I believe this speeds play without losing much realism. Recce and FO's are given a bonus to allow them to spot out the enemy. (Most games little use is made of spotting)

If hidden initial deployment is being used (scenario optional) uncover the unit for the rest of the game once one unit (perhaps recce) spots it.

Whilst an enemy is spotted by any friendly squad or vehicle all other friends are aware of the enemies approximate location and may fire upon it, LOS permitting with a hefty -2 penalty to hit for tank guns, and small arms modifiers of -1 dice this is called "Proximity Shooting", so long as such units have a LOS to the target. Chance of killing anything is small but they may be able to supress the enemy. In summary this is when one friendly is close enough to spot an enemy, all other friendlies within LOS and range can fire with a -2 modifier even though they are not close enough to spot the target unit themselves.

Artillery observers may not use proximity fire, they must be able to see the target to bring down artillery. Not so bad as they get a bonus to their spotting range. You may like to count recce armoured cars as local forward observers if you wish them to be able to bring down mortar fire on targets they identify.

In a "Built Up Area" all units can spot and fire on another unit if it is either in an attached "section of building" or within 5". Roads within a BUA all count as cover as well, only exception is anyone charging from building to building or across roads count as in the open when defenders fire at them on the way into close combat, at all other times they count as cover. My assumption here is that the defender would always get one clear shot at the attacker as he sprinted in the last bit of the assault. Of course you are hoping the defenders are suppressed in which case their fire effectiveness is limited or even better disrupted in which case they can't fire at all!. Use common sense with these rules, if a target is within 5" but obviously in a position that it could not be seen then it can't. Any arguments, toss a coin, war is an uncertain thing!

Some terrain items allow natural cover for infantry, some are a result of digging in, and some would provide hull down positions for vehicles. All this has been abstracted in these rules and are covered by "Cover"

FIRE PRIORITY - Each firing unit can largely fire at whatever it wants, though it should fire at a unit that poses an obvious and clearly superior threat to itself than a "Tactical" target, use common sense to allow this.

TANKS V INFANTRY - Most AFV's can fire one machine gun at the same target as the main gun, OR at a separate target within the arc of fire of the HULL of the firer.AFV's firing HE at infantry do not use area fire. They roll as if infantry weapons but substituting the correct number of D6. e.g. 75mm gun would be 3D6 + possible machine gun. Note that because of the power of the shell no target counts as under cover from a direct HE round from a tank or other AFV, (Unless it is in a purpose built reinforced concrete pillbox). On the other hand most tank MG's do not have the field of view of an infantry hmg therefore they only get 3D6. Pintle mounted 50 cal's, tanks that ONLY have an MG armament etc can count 4D6 for their machine gun.

TO HIT - A major factor in hitting is the range to target. Next factor in that some weapons systems are inherently less accurate and efficient than others. German command and control and optics were superior to Russian equivalent sized guns. Tanks fire at softskin lorries etc the same as other vehicles, they just have a positive modifier to the to penetrate roll.
The last 6 factors marked * are not cumulative. Only take the highest one that applies.
Non turreted vehicles like Stug's normally have a firing arc 45 degrees to either side. If they have to swivel outside of this then count the -3 move penalty. Turreted vehicles do not count as moving unless have to move > 2 inches.
NB A Hull down vehicle or other target "Dug In" counts as under cover as per spotting note.
Multi barrel weapons (Quad AA) get a +1 bonus per extra barrel. e.g. on a Quad 20mm weapon there is a +3 to hit bonus

GUN PENETRATION - Examples of heavy tanks would be Tiger, Panther, KV1, JSII, most tanks with frontal armour in excess of 80mm. Examples of medium tanks would be T34, Late Pz III & IV, Stug's, most tanks with frontal armour of 40mm or greater. Examples of lighter tanks would be Early Pz II, III, IV, H/tracks, A/c's, BT7, T26, T70, & softskin vehicles most tanks with frontal armour less than 40mm and virtually all armoured cars and half tracks. Softskin lorries count as light tanks but with a hefty positive modifier.

Some tanks are exceptions, e.g. T34 counts as a medium tank +1 armour to front and medium armour to side.

Multi barrel weapons (Quad AA) get a +1 bonus per extra barrel. e.g. on a Quad 20mm weapon there is a +3 to penetrate bonus, this is largely because of the barrage of shells hitting the target. If the weapon has no chance of penetrating the target armour it remains no chance.

If a passenger carrying vehicle is hit, remember to roll for damage to the passengers, whether internally within a half track or externally on a tank. The difference is that passengers carried internally within a halftrack count as under cover if shot at by small arms, whereas passengers carried on the outisde of an AFV do not count as being under cover.

SMALL ARMS SHOOTING - Note that as per Crossfire each squad is allocated a number of dice to represent it's firepower. If the target is under cover the firer has one less physical dice to roll.

Small arms aganist softskin lorries is the same as against infantry squads but the lorry is destroyed if it is Disrupted or worse.

Platoon Commanders & Forward Observers - You can not target a PC or FO if other troops are within 2", (unless you are a sniper). If no other troops then fire as normal but 2 or 3 hits will kill them, supression has no effect. Similar in close combat - they can not be targeted if other troops are within 2". If unit PC is with is killed then he is lost as well. If all units within 2" are lost then FO and unattached PC's are lost. PC's and FO's under an artillery barrage are rolled for, they are killed if Disrupted or worse.

LINE OF SIGHT - I allow one layer of shooting through your own troops. The real men and vehicles occupy a smaller amount of space than they appear in the game, and real men and tanks would arrange themselves in a way to provide reasonable covering fire in an advance.

As to shooting from a hill over intervening woods or buildings at a target hiding on the other side of the woods or buildings, I have introduced very simplified dead zone rules. This should be enough it's only a game not an exercise in trigonometry!

INDIRECT FIRING - Each model gun represents 2-3 real guns. Pick a target squad or vehicle, and then roll a Games Workshop scatter dice and 1D6. The scatter dice has a number of "Hit" markers (2) and a number of arrows pointing the direction of deviation (4). If a hit is rolled center the 5" diameter area effect template (available from games workshop) over the centre of the selected target. All other squads 100% or vehicles at least 50% under the template are hit, roll seperately for each of them. If an Arrow is rolled then move the centre of the area effect template in the direction the arrow is pointing the number of inches indicated by 1D6, even if this means you are now covering your own troops.

NB I have been giving considerable thought to blast radius and decided to go back to the 5" games workshop blast radius, but to insist that infantry sized targets are 100% under the blast radius to count. If 2 is rolled on the deviation dice (assuming artillery dice indicates a miss) the template moves away from the centre of the target 2" and it has a radius of 2.5" therefore edge of template will cover 1.125" of the original target, just failing to fully cover it. Therefore on a deviation of 1 the original target is still struck, but on a roll of 2-6 it is not.

Roll the correct number of D6 dependant upon weapon calibre, and apply any modifiers to determine how badly each of the targetted vehicles and squads are effected.

FOO's may not plot artillery fire and MOVE in the same activation. This has the effect of taking longer to call in fire for an advancing force which is reasonably realistic. Remember it is possible to activate your FOO twice he can plot artillery on one activation, and move on the other. My FOO's are foot based infantry but there is nothing stopping you giving them some faster transport, a jeep to USA FOO's for example seems reasonable

All artillery now has it's own template deviation of which is rolled for separately. Even if guns are bought in by same FOO. So if FOO brings in 2 81mm mortar barages on a target and both hit the targets under the blast radius roll 3D6 for each attack, results are in no way combined.

NB Artillery observers may not use proximity fire, they must be able to see the target to bring down artillery. Not so bad as they get a bonus to their spotting range. You may like to count recce armoured cars as local forward observers if you wish them to be able to bring down mortar fire on targets they identify. (I changed this rule)

DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY
Some artillery support may be provided from a higher echelon that is slow to respond. This applies to almost all Soviet artillery above 80mm mortar size, and German artillery of 105mm or greater calibre. USA have better artillery control so would only count this rule for their 155mm guns (optionally 105's). Only difference to ordinary artillery is that it's target is plotted at the beginning of the turn and it falls at the beginning of the next turn. I plot by putting 12 numbered counters over likely target areas and then write down which numbers I have actually targetted. Although theoretically the victim has some indication where the artillery is coming in actually it is more alarming to them seing all these potential spotting points being placed. Lots of fun!

PRE GAME BOMBARDMENT (same as divisionalartillery) - US & British forces, and to a lesser extent the Germans tended to have a lot of artillery available to their tactical commanders. This is reflected by providing them with more artillery and FO's in a normal scenario. All nationalities, but particularly the Russians, have higher echelon artillery assets that can be allocated to a pre game bombardment in a set piece attack game. This is simulated by allowing a single turns pre planned fire on turn 0. The artillery always counts as >105mm (5D6), many defenders can count dug in, note those in woods do not unless for example they were in trenches in woods in which case they would. All pre game bombardement attacks are carried out as individual rolls. Deviation is rolled for. The attacker plots location of pre game bombardment after hidden counters and minefields are deployed.

NB - Please note that pre game bombardment artillery does not need FOO's. Higher echeleon divisional artillery does require a FOO who must be in LOS to intended target at the beginning of the turn the fire is plotted. However you do not need to put a card in the pack for these FOO's as they always plot artillery at the beginning of the turn you might as well let them move whenever they like. FOO's controlling divisional artillery may not be activated more than once per turn, they basically operate outisde of the normal activation sequence.

TERRAIN CHART - The terrain chart indicates for each type of terrain that a squad or vehicle may be crossing or hiding in, what effect on movement moving across it has. Plus whether the terrain feature gives cover to spotting, cover to direct fire, or cover to indirect fire, these are quite different things.
Spotting cover does not normally block line of sight, only buildings woods and rough terrain do this, although these block LOS through them, you can still see into this terrain about 3 inches, you can see out the same distance. This is to simulate minor undulations in the terrain, otherwise one 3 foot wall could block all visability to everything beyond it.

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